Country Overview


Geographic Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E
Area: 796,095 sq. km 
Land Boundaries:  7,257 km 
border countries (4): Afghanistan 2670 km, China 438 km, India 3190 km, Iran 959 km
Coastline: 1,046 km 
Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Natural Hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)


Official Name: Pakistan
Capital: Islamabad
Independent Since: 14 August 1947 (from British India)
Type of Government: Parliamentary form
Head of the State: President Arif ALVI (since 9 September 2018)
Head of Government:  Prime Minister Imran KHAN (since 18 August 2018)
Constitution:  History: several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times)   amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership of both houses; amended many times, last in 2018 (2018)   
Elections/Due:  Senate – last held on 3 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2021) National Assembly – last held on 25 July 2018 (next to be held on 25 July 2023)
Parliament Party Position: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shueera consists of: Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by the 4 provincial assemblies and the territories’ representatives by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members – 60 women and 10 non-Muslims – directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)and the Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (85 seats; members directly elected in single- and 2-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve renewable 4-year terms)
Principal Political Parties with Leaders:Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]

Awami Muslim League or AML [Sheikh Rashid AHMED]

Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI]

Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL]

Grand Democratic Alliance or GDA (alliance of several parties)

Jamhoori Wattan Party or JWP [Shahzain BUGTI]

Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ]

Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]

Muttahida Quami Movement-London or MQM-L [Altaf HUSSAIN] (MQM split into two factions in 2016)

Muttahida Quami Movement-Pakistan or MQM-P [Dr.Khalid Maqbool SIDDIQUI] (MQM split into two factions in 2016)

Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Fazl-ur- REHMAN] (alliance of several parties)

National Party or NP [Mir Hasil Khan BIZENJO]

Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party or PMAP or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]

Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II]

Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Shehbaz SHARIF]

Pakistan Muslim League – Quaid-e-Azam Group or PML-Q [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]

Pakistan People’s Party or PPP [Bilawal BHUTTO ZARDARI, Asif Ali ZARDARI]

Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI (Pakistan Movement for Justice) [Imran KHAN]

Pak Sarzameen Party or PSP [Mustafa KAMAL]

Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]

Note: political alliances in Pakistan shift


Total Population: 170,064,500 ( 2010)
Density per Sq. Km: 2,003.30
Ethnic Groups:  Punjabi 44.7%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Saraiki 8.4%, Muhajirs 7.6%, Balochi 3.6%, other 6.3%
Languages: Urdu (National)   and English (Official)
Religion: Muslim, Christian, Hindu (Jati), Qadiani (Ahmadi), Scheduled Castes, Others
Literacy:  53%
Life Expectancy: male: 65.7 female: 67.4
sex Ratio:          (Male per 100 Female) 772.9


Official Currency: Pakistan Rupee
GDP (Nominal):  303 993 (million US$, 2017)
GDP (PPP):  5.38 thousand (2017)
GDP (Growth Rate):  5.28% (2016-17)
Per Capita GDP (PPP): $ 5539.10 (2017)
Public Debt: Rs 22,820 billion
Rate of Inflation:   1.7% (2017)
Foreign Exchange Reserves: 1776541 (2017)
Rate of Savings:  less than 1 percent
Current Account Deficit: US $ 12.0 billion
Foreign Trade (Export & Import): *Rupees in Million July – February
(2018 – 2019)                                                       
Exports: 1,991,207*                            
Imports: 4,808,389*     
Trade Balance:  *Rupees in Million 2,817,182*(July,2018 – Feburary,2019)
Major Items of Export: Cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items carpets, sports goods, handy-crafts, fish and fish prep. and fruit
Major Items of Import: Industrial equipment, chemicals, vehicles, steel, iron ore, petroleum, edible oil, pulses, tea.
Major Trading Partners: (import and export) Import: China, United Arab Emirates, United States, Saudi Arab, Indonesia  
Exports: United States, United Kingdom, China, Afghanistan, Germany


Military Expenditure:  920,166 (Rs in million) (2017-2018)
Army Manpower: not available    Major Equipment: VMK, MFK
Navy Manpower: not available    Major Equipment: SLTA
Air Force Manpower: not available  Major Equipment: INFRARED FLARES, DETONICS


[1] Image courtesy:



[4] Ibid.