Relations at a Glance

Establishment of Relations 1950[1] [Note: 1st April 1950, KM Panniker was appointed as India’s first ambassador to China]
Brief History  Both India and China began their journey of independent governance almost at the same time, India in 1947 and the People’s Republic of China in 1949.[2] While, the India-China border conflict in 1962 was a serious setback to ties, Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi’s landmark visit to Beijing in 1988, began a phase of improvement in bilateral relations.[3][4] In 1993, the signing of an Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) on the India-China Border Areas during Prime Minister Shri Narasimha Rao’s visit reflected the growing stability in bilateral ties.[5] During Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s visit in 2003, India and China signed the Declaration on Principles for Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation and decided to appoint Special Representatives (SRs) to explore the framework of a boundary settlement.[6] The year 2018 witnessed an upward swing in the momentum of ties. On 27-28 April 2018 Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi and President Xi Jinping held the first Informal Summit in Wuhan to exchange views on overarching issues of bilateral and global importance.[7] The economic relationship between the two has seen a rapid growth in the last few years. For the year 2017, bilateral trade increased by 20.3% year-on-year to reach US$ 84.41 billion, with India’s exports rebounding to US$ 16.34 billion registering positive growth of 38.9% year-on-year after 3 years’ continuous decline. India’s imports from China grew by 16.5% to US$ 68.03 billion.[8]
National Leaders of India Head of State: President Shri Ram Nath Kovind[9] Head of Government : Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi[10]
National Leaders of China Head of State : President Xi Jinping[11] Head of Government : Premier Li Keqiang[12]
Major Bilateral Agreements/MoU/Protocol   1954 Agreement between the Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China on Trade and Intercourse between Tibet Region of China and India. (Note: This agreement was the first formal codification of the Five Principles of Panchsheel)[13] [Note: In period 1950 – 1990, no other major agreements were signed between the two countries. Overarching Cold war politics and 1962 Sino-Indian War can be seen as predominant reasons for the same.]  1993 Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity along the Line of Actual Control on the India-China Border Areas[14][15]. 1996 Agreement on Confidence Building Measures in the military field along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China border areas[16][17]2003 Declaration on Principles for Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation[18]2005 Protocol on modalities for the implementation of Confidence Building Measures in the military field along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China border areas.[19]2011 Agreed Minutes of the 1st India-China strategic Economic Dialogue[20]2012 Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on the Establishment of a Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on India-China Border Affairs[21]2013 Border Defence Cooperation Agreement between India and China[22]
Key Visits to China  Year Visit October 1954 Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru[23] February 1979 Indian Foreign Minister Atal Bihar Vajpayee[24] December 1988 Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi[25] May 1992 President R Ventakraman [Note: First Head of the State visit to China]   September 1993 Prime Minister Narasimha Rao June 1999 External Affairs Minister Jaswant Singh May 2000 President K.R Narayan June 2003 Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee[26] January 2008 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh[27] October 2008 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh[28] [Note: 7th Asia-Europe Summit, Beijing] May 2010 President Pratibha Patil[29] [Note: 60th anniversary of Diplomatic relations with China]   April 2011 Prime Minister Shri Manmohan Singh[30][Note: 3rdBRICS Summit, Sanya Island of Hainan, China]   October 2013 Prime Minister Shri Manmohan Singh[31] May 2015 Prime Minister Narendra Modi[32] May 2016 President Shri Pranab Mukherjee[33] September 2016 Prime Minister Narendra Modi[34] (G20 Summit – Hangzhou, China)   September 2017 Prime Minister Narendra Modi[35] (9th BRICS Summit, Xiamen)   April 2018 Prime Minister Narendra Modi[36] (India-China Informal Summit, Wuhan) June 2018 Prime Minister Narendra Modi[37] (SCO Summit, Qingdao)  
Key Visits to India     Year Visit June 1954 Premier Zhou Enlai[38] December 1991 Premier Li Peng[39] November 1996 President Jiang Zemin [Note: First Head of the State visit to India.] January 2002 Premier Zhu Rongji April 2005 H.E. Mr. Wen Jiabao, Premier of the State Council of the PRC[40] November 2006 Chinese President Hu Jintao[41] December 2010 Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao[42] May 2013 Chinese Premier Le Keqiang[43] September 2014 Chinese President Xi Jinping[44]   June 2014 Minister of Foreign Affairs, H.E Mr. Wang Yi [45] November 2015 Vice President of PRC Mr. Li Yuanchao[46] August 2016 Minister of Foreign Affairs, H.E Mr. Wang Yi[47] December 2017 Minister of Foreign Affairs, H.E Mr. Wang Yi[48] [Note: 15th RIC Meeting] December 2018 Minister of Foreign Affairs, H.E Mr. Wang Yi[49] [Note: 3rd India-China High Level Media Dialogue]
Main Agreements and MoUs (Feb 2014 – Feb 2019) During the visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to India in September 2014, the relationship was upgraded to a Closer Development Partnership. A total of 16 agreements were signed in various sectors.[50] 3 MoU on Connectivity; 1 MoU, 1 Agreed Minute, and 1 Agreement regarding on Trade Cooperation; 1 Agreement on Broadcasting, 1 MoU regarding Space Cooperation; 2 MoU regarding Cultural Cooperation; 1 Work Plan on Health and Family Welfare; 3 Agreements on People-2-People Exchange; 2 MoU regarding Industrial Cooperation.    Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited China in May 2015. During the visit, Prime Minister Modi and Premier Li also addressed the opening session of the First State/Provincial Leaders’ Forum in Beijing. There were 24 agreements signed on the government -to- government side.[51] 1 Protocol Regarding New Consulate at Chengdu; 3 MoU & 2 Action Plan for Education Cooperation; 1 MoU on Trade; 1 MoU on Diplomatic Exchange; 1 Action Plan on Railways; 1 MoU on Mining and Mineral Sector; 1 Outline for Space Cooperation, 1 Protocol on Health and Safety Standards; 1 MoU on Broadcasting; 1 Agreement on tourism; 3 MoU on Think Tanks Forum; 1 MoU on Earthquake; 1 MoU on Scientific Cooperation; 1 MoU on Cooperation at Provincial Level; 3  Agreement to Enhance P2P exchange   Prime Minister Modi also visited Qingdao on June 2018 for the 18th summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), and held bilateral talks with President Xi. 1 MoU on hydrological information of the Brahmaputra River, and 1 Agreement regarding phytosanitary requirements for rice exports, were signed at this meeting.[52]
Joint Working Groups Defence Joint Working Group – to seek fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable solution on the boundary question.  Working Mechanism on Consultation & Coordination for India – China Border Affairs[53][54] Trade and Economics[55] Joint Group on Economic Relations, Science and Technology (JEG) – 1988.[56] Strategic Economic Dialogue (SED) – 2010. [57]The Niti Ayog – Development Research Centre of China (DRC) Dialogue – 2015. [58] India-China Financial Dialogue – 2005.[59]Other Institutional MechanismJWG on Collaboration in Skill Development and Vocational Education Joint Working Group on Information and Communication Technology & High-Technology, Joint Working Group on Industrial Park CooperationJoint Study Group and Joint Task Force on Regional Trading Agreement (RTA), India-China Joint Working Group on Agriculture,India-China Joint Working Group on Cooperation in Energy Joint Study Group on BCIM Economic Corridor. List of Institutional Dialogues and Important Meetings held in 2018 S. No. Activity Date/Period 1 11th Meeting of JEG 26 March, New Delhi 2 5th SED Meeting 13-14 April, Beijing 3 NDB Board of Governors Meeting 28-29 May, Shanghai 4 AIIB Board of Governors Meeting 22-26 June, Mumbai 5 4th NITI Aayog-DRC Dialogue 31 October- 01 November, Mumbai
Bilateral Trade Trade Data – (US$ Million)   2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 Total Imports 60,413.17 61,707.95 61,283.03 76,380.70 70,319.55 Total Exports 11,934.254.25 9,011.36 10,171.89 13,333.53 16,749.59 9,011.36 10,171.89 13,333.53 16,749.59 Total Trade 72,347.00 70,719.00 71,454 89,714.00 87,069.00 Balance of Trade -48478.92 -52696.60 -51111.1 -63047.20 -53569.96 Source: Data extracted from Export Import Data Bank,  Ministry of Commerce & Industry, India[60] 1 India Exports (2017) : Natural Pearls, Precious Stones & Metals, Metal Ores, Slag & Ash, Cotton Including Yam & Woven Fabric, Copper & Articles, Organic Chemicals, Salt, Sulphur, Earth & Stone, Lime % Cement Plaster.[61]   India Imports (2017) : Electrical Machinery And Equipment, Computers, Servers, Printers, Air Conditioners, Compressors, Machinery & Parts, Organic Chemicals, Plastic & Articles, Fertilizers, Iron & Steel.[62]
Disputes Border Dispute[63][64] : The entire India-China border is disputed. China does not recognise the McMahon Line. The entire boundary is divided into three sectors. In the western sector, China has occupied Aksai Chin and claims the Chanchenmo valley, the Pangong lake and Spanggur Tso in North Ladakh and a strip of 5,000 sq km in eastern Ladakh. In all it claims an area of approximately 38000 sq. km in this sector.   In Middle sector, China claims pockets of territory in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh such as Barahoti, Nilang Jadhang, Sangcha Malla, Lapthal and Shipki Pass. During the boundary talks between the two countries, maps for the middle sectors were exchanged in 2000. In the eastern sector, China claims the entire state of Arunachal Pradesh.   In addition, under the so-called China-Pakistan “Boundary Agreement” signed between China and Pakistan on 2 March 1963, Pakistan illegally ceded 5,180 sq. kms of Indian territory in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir to China.
Border Negotiations Agreements: 1. Agreement on the maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China border areas, signed in September 1993. 2. Agreement on Confidence Building Measures in the military field along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China border areas, signed in November 1996. 3. Protocol on modalities for the implementation of Confidence Building Measures in the military field along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China border areas, signed in April 2005. 4. Agreement on the Political Parameters and Guiding Principles for the Settlement of the India- China Boundary Question, signed in April 2005. 5. Agreement on the establishment of Working Mechanism on Consultation and Coordination on India-China Border Affairs, signed in Jan 2012. 6. Border Defence Cooperation Agreement signed in October 2013.   Special Representatives of India and China on the Boundary Question[65]   India and China have each appointed a Special Representative (SR) to explore the framework for a boundary settlement from the political perspective of the overall bilateral relationship. There have been twenty one meetings of SRs so far with the last meeting held in Chengdu on 24 November 2018. The two sides have agreed to seek a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable solution to the boundary question through dialogue and negotiations.
Key Officials India- Minister of External Affairs Dr Subrahmanyam Jaishankar[66] Ambassador – India to China Mr Vikram Misri[67] Joint Secretary – East Asia Division Pranay K. Verma[68]     China-   Minister of Foreign Affairs Wang Yi[69] Ambassador – China to India H.E. Mr. Luo Zhaohui[70] Director General – Asian Affairs Wu Jianghao[71]

Disclaimer: Vivekananda International Foundation does not take any stance on the data presented above. The data sources are duly referenced.

Last Updated: 30 July 2019


References

[1] India-China Political Relations, Embassy of India in Beijing (China). Available at: https://www.eoibeijing.gov.in/political-relation.php

[2] India-China Relations,  MEA. Available at: https://www.mea.gov.in/Portal/ForeignRelation/China_January_2014.pdf

[3] Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited China, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC, Available at: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/ziliao_665539/3602_665543/3604_665547/t18017.shtml

[4] Sino-Indian Joint Press Communique http://in.china-embassy.org/eng/zygxc/wx/t762866.htm

[5] Ibid.

[6] Prime Ministerial Visits to China, MEAhttps://mea.gov.in/photo-features.htm?895/Prime+Ministerial+Visits+to+China

[7] India-China Informal Summit at Wuhan . MEA  https://mea.gov.in/press-releases.htm?dtl/29853/IndiaChina_Informal_Summit_at_Wuhan

[8] Bilateral Trade, India-China Trade and Economic Relations, Embassy of India in Beijing, Available at: https://www.eoibeijing.gov.in/economic-and-trade-relation.php

[9] President of India, Available at: https://presidentofindia.nic.in/profile.htm  

[10] Prime Minister of India, Available at: https://www.india.gov.in/my-government/whos-who/prime-minister

[11] The Presidency of the People’s Republic of China, Available at: http://english1.english.gov.cn/2013-03/14/content_2353971.htm

[12] The State Council, Available at: http://english1.english.gov.cn/2013-03/15/content_2354765.htm

[13] United Nations – Treaty Series, No. 4307 p70. https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%20299/v299.pdf

[14] Peacemaker UN Database, 1993 Agreement. Available at: https://peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/CN%20IN_930907_Agreement%20on%20India-China%20Border%20Areas.pdf

[15]Agreement Between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of India on Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control in the China-India Border Areas http://in.china-embassy.org/eng/zygxc/wx/t15914.htm

[16] Peacemaker UN Database,  1996 Agreement. Available at: https://peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/CN%20IN_961129_Agreement%20between%20China%20and%20India.pdf

[17] Agreement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of India on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control in the China-India Border Areashttp://in.china-embassy.org/eng/zygxc/wx/t15915.htm

[18] Declaration on Principles for Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation between Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China, MEA. Available at: https://www.mea.gov.in/in-focus-article.htm?7679/Declaration+on+Principles+for+Relations+and+Comprehensive+Cooperation+Between+the+Republic+of+India+and+the+Peoples+Republic+of+China

[19] Peacemaker UN Database, 2005 Protocol. Available at: https://peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/CN%20IN_961129_Agreement%20between%20China%20and%20India.pdf

[20] Agreed Minutes of the 1st India-China Strategic Economic Dialogue, MEA. Available at: https://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/5100/Agreed+Minutes+of+the+1st+IndiaChina+Strategic+Economic+Dialogue

[21] Peacemaker UN Database, 2012 Agreement. Available at: https://peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/CN%20IN_120117_India-China%20Agreement%20on%20the%20Establishment%20of%20a%20Working%20Mechanism.pdf

[22] Peacemaker UN Database, 2013 Agreement. Available at: https://peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/CH-IN_131023_BorderDefenceCooperationAgreement.pdf

[23] Prime Ministerial Visits to China, MEA https://mea.gov.in/photo-features.htm?895/Prime+Ministerial+Visits+to+China

[24] Mr. Vajpayee Visited China in 1979, China’s Embassy in India. http://in.china-embassy.org/eng/ssygd/fiveprinciple/hpgcwxyzzp/t61553.htm

[25] Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited China, Available at: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/ziliao_665539/3602_665543/3604_665547/t18017.shtml

[26] Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s visit to China, 22 – 27 June 2003 https://www.mea.gov.in/outgoing-visit-info.htm?2/384/Prime+Minister+Shri+Atal+Bihari+Vajpayees+visit+to+China+22++27+June+2003

[27] Visit of Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh to China, Available at: http://mea.gov.in/outgoing-visit-info.htm?2/105/Visit+of+Prime+Minister+Dr+Manmohan+Singh+to+China+January+1315+2008 

[28] Visit of Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh to Japan and China for the ASEM Summit (21-25 October, 2008) https://www.mea.gov.in/outgoing-visit-info.htm?2/313/Visit+of+Prime+Minister+Dr+Manmohan+Singh+to+Japan+and+China+for+the+ASEM+Summit+2125+October+2008

[29] Departure Statement On Board By H.E. Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil, The President Of India On Her State Visit To China  http://pratibhapatil.nic.in/pr260510-1.html

[30] Pm’s Visit to China (BRICS Summit) and Kazakhstan. Available at: http://mea.gov.in/outgoing-visit-info.htm?2/19/PMs+visit+to+China+BRICS+Summit+and+Kazakhstan

[31] Visit of Prime Minister to China, Available at: http://mea.gov.in/outgoing-visit-info.htm?2/641/Visit+of+Prime+Minister+to+China+October+2224+2013

[32] Visit of Prime Minister to China, Available at: http://mea.gov.in/outgoing-visit-info.htm?2/772/Visit+of+Prime+Minister+to+China+May+1416+2015

[33] Visit of President to China, Available at: https://mea.gov.in/outgoing-visit-info.htm?2/882/Visit+of+President+to+China+May+2427+2016

[34] Visit of Prime Minister to China(Hangzhou), Available at: http://mea.gov.in/outgoing-visit-info.htm?2/913/Visit+of+Prime+Minister+to+China+September+0305+2016

[35] Visit of Prime Minister to China to attend 9th BRICS Summit, Available at: https://mea.gov.in/outgoing-visit-info.htm?2/1000/Visit+of+Prime+Minister+to+China+to+attend+9th+BRICS+Summit

[36] India-China Informal Summit at Wuhan, Available at: https://mea.gov.in/outoging-visit-detail.htm?29853/IndiaChina+Informal+Summit+at+Wuhan

[37] Visit of Prime Minister to China, Available at: https://mea.gov.in/outgoing-visit-info.htm?2/1084/Visit+of+Prime+Minister+to+China+June+910+2018

[38] Premier Zhou Enlai’s Visit to India in 1954, Available at:  http://in.china-embassy.org/eng/ssygd/fiveprinciple/hpgcwxyzzp/t61548.htm

[39] Significance of Li Peng visit, MEAhttps://mea.gov.in/articles-in-indian-media.htm?dtl/18443/Significance+if+Li+Peng+visit

[40] Visit of H.E. Mr. Wen Jiabao, Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China to India, April 9-12, 2005 https://www.mea.gov.in/incoming-visit-info.htm?1/598/Visit+of+HE+Mr+Wen+Jiabao++of+the+State+Council+of+the+Peoples+Republic+of+China+to+India+April+912+2005

[41] Visit of Chinese President Hu Jintao to India, (November 20-23, 2006) https://www.mea.gov.in/incoming-visit-info.htm?1/497/Visit+of+Chinese+President+Hu+Jintao+to+India+November+2023+2006

[42] Visit of India Premier Web Jiabao of China https://www.mea.gov.in/incoming-visit-info.htm?1/300/Visit+of+India++Web+Jiabao+of+China

[43] State visit of Chinese Premier H.E. Mr. li Keqiang to India, 19-21 May 2013, Available at: https://mea.gov.in/in-focus-topic.htm?92/state+visit+of+chinese++he+mr+li+keqiang+to+india+may+1921+2013

[44] Press Statement by Prime Minister during the Visit of President Xi Jinping of China to India(September 18, 2014) Available at: https://mea.gov.in/Speeches-Statements.htm?dtl/24014/press+statement+by+prime+minister+during+the+visit+of+president+xi+jinping+of+china+to+india+september+18+2014

[45] Visit of Foreign Minister of the People’s Republic of China to India (June 8-9, 2014)​ https://www.mea.gov.in/incoming-visit-info.htm?1/691/Visit+of+Foreign+Minister+of+the+Peoples+Republic+of+China+to+India+June+89+2014

[46] Visit of Vice President of the People’s Republic of China to India (November 3-7, 2015) https://www.mea.gov.in/incoming-visit-info.htm?1/824/Visit+of+Vice+President+of+the+Peoples+Republic+of+China+to+India+November+37+2015

[47] Official visit of Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China to India (August 12-14, 2016) https://www.mea.gov.in/incoming-visit-detail.htm?27282/Official+visit+of+Minister+of+Foreign+Affairs+of+the+Peoples+Republic+of+China+to+India+August+1214+2016

[48] 15th Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Russia, India and China, New Delhi (December 11, 2017) https://www.mea.gov.in/incoming-visit-detail.htm?29153/15th+Meeting+of+the+Foreign+Ministers+of+Russia+India+and+China+New+Delhi+December+11+2017

[49] Visit of Minister of Foreign Affairs of People’s Republic of China to India (December 21 – 24, 2018) https://www.mea.gov.in/incoming-visit-info.htm?1/1134/Visit+of+Minister+of+Foreign+Affairs+of+Peoples+Republic+of+China+to+India+December+21++24+2018

[50] List of Documents signed during the State Visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to India, Availble at : https://www.mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/24012/List+of+Documents+signed+during+the+State+Visit+of+Chinese+President+Xi+Jinping+to+India

[51] List of Agreements signed during the visit of Prime Minister to China (May 15. 2015), Available at : https://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/25260/List+of+Agreements+signed+during+the+visit+of+Prime+Minister+to+China+May+15+2015 

[52] India-China Bilateral Agreements signed in Qingdao, China. Available at: https://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/29966/IndiaChina+Bilateral+Agreements+signed+in+Qingdao+China

[53] Working Mechanism on Consultation & Co-ordination for India-China Border Affairs https://mea.gov.in/press-releases.htm?dtl/29706/Working_Mechanism_on_Consultation_amp_Coordination_for_India__China_Border_Affairs

[54] India-China Bilateral Defence Cooperation in 2014-15. Available at: https://www.eoibeijing.gov.in/defense-relation.php

[55] India-China Trade and Economic Relations. Available at:  https://www.eoibeijing.gov.in/economic-and-trade-relation.php

[56] It was established in 1988 during the visit of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi to China, to discuss trade cooperation issues.  So far 11 JEGs were held with the last one in Delhi in March 2018.  During the 9th JEG, three working groups were set up on Economic and Trade Planning Cooperation (ETPC), Trade Statistical Analysis (TSA) and, Service Trade Promotion (or Trade in Services – TIS). Available at: https://www.eoibeijing.gov.in/economic-and-trade-relation.php

[57] It was established during the visit of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao to India in December 2010. So far 5 SED meetings have taken place with the last one held in Beijing in April 2018.  There are 5 Working Groups under SED: Infrastructure, Environment, Energy, High Technology and Policy Coordination. During 5th SED both sides agreed to create one more working group on Pharmaceutical. Available at: https://www.eoibeijing.gov.in/economic-and-trade-relation.php

[58] Note: It was established pursuant to the MoU signed during the visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to China in May 2015, to discuss global economic cooperation issues.  Vice-Chairman NITI Aayog leads the India delegation while President (Minister-level) of DRC of China leads the Chinese delegation.  The fourth dialogue was held in Mumbai from on 1 November 2018.

[59] Note : These are held in accordance with the MoU signed during Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s visit to India in April 2005. The eighth India-China Financial Dialogue was held in Beijing on 19 August 2016 which was co-chaired by Secretary DEA. The Indian side expressed concern over the problems being faced by the State Bank of India in invoking counter guarantee from some Chinese banks. The Ninth Financial Dialogue is proposed to be held in India.

[60] Country Wise, Total Trade –China. https://commerce-app.gov.in/eidb/default.asp

[61] [61] India-China Trade and Economic Relations. Available at:  https://www.eoibeijing.gov.in/economic-and-trade-relation.php

[62] Ibid.

[63] Question No 2722 Border Disputes With Neighbouring Countries, 03 Jan 2018. Available at: https://mea.gov.in/lok-sabha.htm?dtl/29310/QUESTION+NO2722+BORDER+DISPUTES+WITH+NEIGHBOURING+COUNTRIES

[64] India’s Border Management, Select Documents, IDSA. Available at: https://idsa.in/system/files/book/book_IndiasBorderManagement.pdf

[65] Question no. 2092 Border Conflict with China, Available at: https://mea.gov.in/rajya-sabha.htm?dtl/31584/question+no2092+border+conflict+with+china

[66] Ministry of External Affairs, Dr. Subrahmanyam Jaishankar, Available at: https://www.mea.gov.in/eam.htm

[67] Ambassador’s Profile https://www.eoibeijing.gov.in/profile.php

[68] Divisions, MEA, Available at:  https://www.mea.gov.in/divisions.htm

[69] Minister, FMPRC. Available at: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjb_663304/wjbz_663308/

[70] Ambassador Biography, Available at:  http://in.china-embassy.org/eng/dsxxs/dsjl1/t391100.htm

[71] The Department of Asian Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC. Available at: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjb_663304/zzjg_663340/yzs_663350/