Relation at a Glance

Establishment of Relations 1947
Brief History 

India has always striven for peaceful, friendly and cooperative relations with Pakistan for the past 70 years. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1947 but complex issues such as the accession of princely states, refugee matters, Indus Water sharing, division of assets, safeguarding minorities located in Pakistan and so on emerged. The Indus Water Treaty of 1960 and grant of Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status for trade to Pakistan by India are indicators of consistent exhibition of goodwill by New Delhi.

Never the less, Pakistan has maintained adversarial relations resulting in three wars in 1948, 1965, 1971. Despite the Shimla Agreement of 1972 Pakistan indulged in violation of the Line of Control (LoC) in Kargil in 1999 but was evicted successfully by the Indian Armed Forces.

Today, the primary issue between the two countries is Pakistan sponsored terrorism particularly in Jammu and Kashmir. Despite signing the Lahore Declaration in 1999 and agreeing to cease fire on the Line of Control (LoC) in 2003, Pakistan has continued to support cross border terrorism.  India’s continued outreach to Pakistan was reflected in the invitation to then Pak Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in May 2014 for his swearing-in ceremony.  This was followed by an impromptu visit by Prime Minister Modi to Lahore on 25 December 2015. However, the persistent cycle of terror by Pakistan such as Pathankot air base and Uri (2016) and Pulwama (2019), lack of follow up action on these as well as Mumbai 26/11/2008 terrorist attacks, despite firm evidence provided by India, has led to continued break in the relationship.

National Leaders of India Head of State: President Shri Ram Nath Kovind[1]

Head of Government: Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi[2]

National Leaders of Pakistan Head of State: President Dr. Arif Alvi [3]

Head of Government: Prime Minister Mr. Imran Ahmed Khan Niazi[4]

Key Visits to Pakistan

(President, PM)

Year President’s Prime Minister’s
2014 – 2019 1.      25 December 2015 Stop-over visit of Prime Minister to Pakistan[5]
Key Visits to India

(President, PM)

Year President’s Prime Minister’s
2014 – 2019 –            1.      27 May 2014 (Visit of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to New Delhi at swearing-in of the new government for which SAARC Heads of State/ Government were invited)  [6]
Main Treaties/Agreement And Dialogue Ongoing discussions the modalities and draft Agreement for facilitation of Pilgrims on Kartarpur Sahib Corridor, July 2019[7]

Major Bilateral Agreements:

Indus Waters Treaty, 1960[8]

Simla Agreement, 1972[9]

Lahore Declaration February, 1999[10]

Memorandum of Understanding 8 September 2012 – MoU between India and Pakistan on cultural cooperation[11]
Joint Working Groups Joint Working Group (JWG) on “Economic and Commercial Cooperation and Trade Promotion”[12]

Joint Working Group (JWG)  on “Environment”

Joint Working Group (JWG)  on “Science & Technology”

Joint Working Group (JWG)  on “Agriculture”

Joint Working Group (JWG)  on “Health”

Joint Working Group (JWG)  on “Education”

Joint Working Group (JWG)  on “Information”[13]

Joint Working Group (JWG)  on “Cross-LoC CBMs”[14]

Joint Commission Between India And Pakistan[15]

Composite Dialogue between India and Pakistan[16]

Bilateral Trade Total Trade Data[17] – US$ Million

2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19
2,354.49 2,612.20 2,276.36 2,276.36 2,412.48 2,561.44

Source: Data extracted from Export Import Data Bank,  Ministry of Commerce & Industry, India[18]


Major Exports (2017-18):

1.       Cotton

2.       Organic chemicals

3.       Machinery

4.       Vegetables

5.       Animal fodder

6.       Coffee, tea and spices etc.

Major Imports (2017-18):

1.       Copper and copper articles

2.       Fruits and nuts

3.       Cotton

4.       Organic chemicals

5.       Rubber plastic products and wool

6.       Mineral fuels etc.


Pakistan is in illegal and forcible occupation of approximately 78,000 sq. Kms of Indian Territory in Jammu and Kashmir. In addition, under the so-called Sino-Pakistan Boundary Agreement of 1963, Pakistan illegally ceded 5,180 sq. Kms in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir to China. The International Boundary in the Sir Creek area and International Maritime Boundary line (IMBL) between India and Pakistan have not been demarcated.[20]

Pakistan has not taken action against the perpetrators of Mumbai attacks (November 2008). The conspiracy for the Mumbai Terrorist Attacks took place in Pakistan and therefore, it was Pakistan’s responsibility to present to the trial court in Pakistan all the necessary evidence. Government remains committed to providing all cooperation to Pakistan for an expeditious and successful conclusion of Mumbai Terrorist Attack Trial ongoing in Pakistan. [21]

CBMs Please see: CBMs between India and Pakistan
Key Officials India-

Minister of External Affairs Dr. Subrahmanyam Jaishankar[22]
High Commissioner (India to Pakistan) H.E. Shri Ajay Bisaria[23]
JS[PAI], Ministry of External Affairs Shri. Deepak Mittal[24]


Foreign Minister of Pakistan H.E. Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi[25]
High Commissioner (Pakistan to India) H.E. Mr. Moin-ul-Haq[26]

[Note: Name of new H.C. to India not yet uploaded on official website – official confirmation awaited.]

Director General (South Asia Division & SAARC) Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Pakistan Dr. Mohammad Faisal[27]

Disclaimer: Vivekananda International Foundation does not take any stance on the data presented above. The data sources are duly referenced.

Last Updated: 25 July 2019













[13] Areas identified for cooperation by Joint Working Groups of the India-Pakistan Joint Commission



[16] India-Pakistan Relations : Recent Developments, MEA. Available at:


[18] Country Wise, Total Trade –China.

[19] P-6,“India-Pakistan Relations”, Ministry of External Affairs,





[24] PAI [Pakistan, Afghanistan & Iran] Division (All matters relating to Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran)