Tag Archives: CERT-In

VIF Cyber Review: October 2022


Tata Power’s IT infrastructure suffered a cyber-attack; critical systems were not disrupted

On 14 October 2022, Tata Power announced that their IT infrastructure dealt with a cyber-attack and some systems were impacted. The cyber-attack targeted its IT infrastructure, but the critical systems have not been disrupted. “The Company has taken steps to retrieve and restore the systems. All critical operational systems are functioning; however, as a measure of abundant precaution, restricted access and preventive checks have been put in place for employee and customer-facing portals and touchpoints,” said Tata Power’s spokesperson.

India’s Power Minister R K Singh informed the Press in April 2022 that Chinese hackers had twice failed to target electricity distribution centres near Ladakh. A Chinese state-sponsored hacking group targeted at least seven Indian State Load Despatch Centres (SLDCs) responsible for real-time grid control and electricity dispatch near the disputed India-China border in Ladakh.[1]

CERT-In and Power-CSIRT jointly organised a cyber security exercise— “PowerEX-2022”.

On 12 October 2022, the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) and Power-CSIRT (Computer Security Incident Response Teams in the Power sector) jointly organised a cyber security exercise— PowerEX-2022 and invited 193 Power sector utilities. The objective of the exercise was to “Recognise, Analyse and Respond to cyber incidents in IT and OT (Operational Technology) Systems”.

CERT-In hosted PowerEX-2022 on its exercise simulation platform with the theme “Defending Cyber-Induced Disruption in IT & OT Infrastructure.” The cyber security exercise involved over 350 officials from various Power sectors.[2]

CBI-led ‘Operation Chakra’ dismantled cybercrime networks operating in India.

In a joint operation— ‘Operation Chakra’ launched in collaboration with State police, Interpol, and various agencies of other nations, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) dismantled cyber-crime networks operating in India and arrested 16 cyber-criminals. Acting upon the inputs shared by the Interpol, the US’ Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Canada’s Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), and Australian Federal Police (AFP), the CBI, in coordination with State police, carried out search operations at 115 locations across India.

Out of 115 locations, the CBI carried out searches at 87 locations, including 16 States, whereas 28 locations were searched by various State police, including 02 locations by Assam police, 04 locations by Andaman & Nicobar Police, 03 locations by Chandigarh police, 05 places by Delhi police, 12 locations by Karnataka police, and 02 locations by Punjab police. “The operation intends to dismantle the infrastructure of these international cyber-crime gangs in India and bring these perpetrators to justice. India’s fight against transnational organised cyber-crime has thus achieved a major milestone,” read the statement released by the CBI.

During the searches, the CBI unearthed 02 Call Centres in Pune & Ahmedabad and recovered cash worth ₹ 1.8 crores (approx.) and 1.5 kg gold (approx.).[3]

For a free, open, trustworthy, and accountable internet, the Government of India (GoI) announced amendments to the IT (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021.

While addressing the media members on 28 October 2022, the Minister of State for Electronics & Information Technology— Rajeev Chandrasekhar, said that protecting the Constitutional rights of Indian citizens is a must and that Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi is a trustee of the rights of citizens and Digital Nagriks. The minister addressed the media members about the amendments to the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021.

The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) notified these amendments aimed at protecting the rights of Digital Nagriks as part of a significant push toward an Open, Safe, Trusted, and Accountable Internet. It also strengthens due diligence requirements while holding accountable social media and other intermediaries. They were notified in light of complaints about the intermediaries’ actions or inactions on user complaints about objectionable content or the suspension of their accounts. Intermediaries will now be expected to ensure that no content is uploaded that intentionally communicates misinformation or information that is patently false or untrue, entrusting intermediaries with significant responsibility. The rules also make it clear that the intermediary must respect the rights guaranteed to Indian citizens under Articles 14, 19, and 21 of the Indian Constitution. [4]

The amended rules are hosted on the Ministry’s website and are available at: Click here to read…

UNCTC adopted the Delhi Declaration on Countering the Use of New and Emerging Technologies for Terrorist Purposes.

On 29 October 2022, the Delhi Declaration on the use of the Internet and other technologies for terrorist objectives was unanimously endorsed by the UN Counter-Terrorism Committee (UNCTC). According to the proclamation, one of the biggest challenges to global peace and security is terrorism, in all of its expressions and forms. As one of the essential takeaways, India now intends to carry out the recommendations based on the three Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) special meeting themes. These include:

  • Threats and opportunities related to new payment technologies and fundraising methods,
  • Countering terrorist exploitation of ICT and emerging technologies, and
  • Threats posed by terrorist misuse of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS).

As a result of terror infiltration on its soil from neighbouring Pakistan, India reaffirmed its commitment to combat terrorism in collaboration with key global players at the summit. Terrorists have stepped up their use of the internet and other IC technologies, including social media platforms. India also recognised the risks and difficulties of financial technology developments, like crowdfunding platforms, being misused to fund terrorism.[5]


Cyber-attack on Chile’s astronomical observatory raised concerns about the security of space tech.

On 29 October 2022, the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA), a Chilean astronomical observatory, was the victim of a cyber-attack and had to halt operations. The attack had affected the observatory’s computer systems and targeted its public website. The attack did not affect ALMA’s scientific data or antennas, but it prevented space observations and limited access to its email servers. Around 66 Radio Telescopes (RTs) make up the ALMA observatory, which is estimated to be worth USD 1.4 billion. These RTs can record high-definition (HD) photos of the extremely faint radio waves generated by far-off celestial objects that are 13 billion light years away.

“Beating one of the world’s most powerful observatories offline demonstrates that cyber-attackers are dogged in their pursuit to disrupt, run reconnaissance efforts, or lift valuable data or IP addresses,” said Josh Lospinoso, the CEO of a cyber security firm— Shift5. Space is another frontier for cyber-attacks, with hackers targeting the space industry for geopolitical and militaristic reasons.[6]

A cyber-attack disrupted Bulgarian government websites over ‘betrayal to Russia’.

According to Bulgaria’s Prosecutor-General Ivan Geshev, on 15 October 2022, pro-Russian hackers carried out a ‘large-scale’ DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-Service) attack on Bulgarian government websites. The websites of the Presidential Administration, the Defense Ministry, the Interior Ministry, the Justice Ministry, and the Constitutional Court were all taken down by the DDoS attack.

Killnet, a pro-Russian hacking group, claimed responsibility for the attack and wrote on its official group on the Telegram app that “the government of Bulgaria is sentenced to network collapse and shame. It was a punishment for betrayal to Russia and the supply of weapons to Ukraine.” Since the beginning of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, the Killnet group has been active. Numerous government networks in Europe, including those in Romania, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Finland, and Latvia, were among the dozens of targets the group previously targeted. Although the DDoS attack on the Bulgarian websites had no lasting effects and no private information was exposed, it still sparked a significant response from Bulgarian government officials. The Prosecutor-General Geshev described it as “a severe issue” and “an attack on the state of Bulgaria.”[7]

Chinese cyber-espionage group “WIP19” targeted telecoms and IT service providers in West Asia and Asia.

According to the reports of a cyber security firm— SentinelOne, a new Chinese cyber-espionage group identified as WIP19 has been targeting telecoms and IT service providers based in West Asia and Asia by using stolen certificates to sign several malicious components. To date, the APT (Advanced Persistent Threat) group WIP19 uses malware families such as ScreenCap, SQLMaggie, and a credential dumper. “The stolen certificate was used to sign all of the threat actor’s credential harvesting tools, including a password dumper that relied on open-source code to load an SSP to LSASS and dump the process.

WIP19 was also observed loading a keylogger and a screen recorder using DLL search order hijacking. The keylogger primarily targets the victim’s browser to collect credentials and other sensitive data,” read the statement released by SentinelOne. The backdoor was masked as a legitimate DLL registered to the MSSQL Server in SQLMaggie attacks to provide the attackers with control over the server machine and to perform network reconnaissance.[8]

Turkey’s new law against disinformation raised deep concerns over free speech.

On 13 October 2022, the Turkish parliament adopted a new law proposed by President Tayyip Erdogan, which would jail journalists and social media users for up to three years for spreading ‘disinformation’. In parliament, President Erdogan’s AK Party (AKP) and its allies MHP voted to approve the bill, whereas MPs in opposition and media rights activists opposed it.

Article 29 of the law state that “those who spread false information online about Turkey’s security to create fear and disturb public order will face a prison sentence of one to three years.”[9] However, the law did not define the nature of false or misleading information.

Turkey ‘secretly’ assisted Pakistan in establishing a cyber army against India and the US.

According to Nordic Monitor’s findings, Pakistan established a cyber army with the assistance of Turkey in order to influence public opinion and the views of Muslims living in South/South-East Asia, attack India and the United States (US), and undermine criticism levelled against Pakistan establishment. Further, the findings revealed that the proposal to form such an army was raised during private talks between visiting Turkish Interior Minister Suleyman Soylu and his Pakistani counterpart— former Minister of State for Interior— Shehryar Khan Afridi, on 17 December 2018. On the same day, Minister of State for Interior— Afridi met former Pakistan Prime Minister (PM) Imran Khan, who later green-lighted the project.

According to sources acquainted with the project, the covert activity was disguised under the bilateral agreement on cooperation against cyber-crime, whereas in reality, it was against perceived influence operations pursued by India, the US, and other foreign countries. Responding to Pakistan’s request to set up the cyber army, Turkey sent five police chiefs from various departments in the Security General Directorate (Emniyet). The five-member team spent months in Pakistan getting the project off the ground and eventually finishing it. The cooperation has since continued under successive governments, with Turkey training approximately 6,000 Pakistani police officers for this and other related projects.[10]

Japan and Australia strengthen their security pact in response to China’s threat.

On 22October 2022, Japan and Australia signed a new bilateral agreement covering military, intelligence, and cyber security cooperation. The agreement also referred to cooperation in resisting economic coercion and disinformation, which China is widely accused of. The bilateral agreement is the first of its kind where Japan signed with any country other than the United States (US). The agreement covers military interoperability, intelligence, cyber security, operations in space, law-enforcement, logistics and protecting telecommunications. “This new declaration…will chart the direction of our security and defence cooperation in the next 10 years,” said Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida.[11]

Endnotes :

[1] Greig, Jonathan. “Indian energy company Tata Power announces cyberattack affecting IT infrastructure”, The Record, 14 October 2022, accessed on 02 November 2022, available from: https://therecord.media/indian-energy-company-tata-power-announces-cyberattack-affecting-it-infrastructure/
[2] “CERT-In and Power-CSIRTs jointly conduct Cyber Security Exercise ‘PowerEX-2022”, Press Information Bureau- Ministry of Electronics & IT, 13 October 2022, accessed on 01 November 2022, available from: https://pib.gov.in/Pressreleaseshare.aspx?PRID=1867348
[3] “Press Release”, Central Bureau of Investigation, 04 October 2022, accessed on 02 November 2022, available from: https://cbi.gov.in/press-detail/NTI3Ng==
[4] “Press Release”, Ministry of Electronics and IT, 29 October 2022, accessed on 01 November 2022, available from: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1871840
[5] “Press Release”, Ministry of External Affairs, 29 October 2022, accessed on 01 November 2022, available from: https://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/35840/Delhi_Declaration_on_countering_the_use_of_new_and_emerging_technologies_for_terrorist_purposes ; Majeed, Zaini. “UN Counter-Terrorism Committee Adopts Delhi Declaration; Key Takeaways Here”, Republic World, 29 October 2022, accessed on 01 November 2022, available from: https://www.republicworld.com/world-news/rest-of-the-world-news/united-nations-counter-terrorism-committee-adopts-delhi-declaration-articleshow.html
[6] Antoniuk, Daryna. “cyberattack on observatory in Chile raises concerns about security of space tech”, The Record, 07 November 2022, accessed on 10 November 2022, available from: https://therecord.media/cyberattack-on-observatory-in-chile-raises-concerns-about-security-of-space-tech/?utm_source=substack&utm_medium=email ; “Chilean astronomical observatory hit by cyberattack”, SC Media, 08 November 2022, accessed on 10 November 2022, available from: https://www.scmagazine.com/brief/breach/chilean-astronomical-observatory-hit-by-cyberattack
[7] Antoniuk, Daryna. “cyberattack disrupts Bulgarian government websites over ‘betrayel to Russia’”, The Record, 18 October 2022, accessed on 02 November 2022, available from: https://therecord.media/cyberattack-disrupts-bulgarian-government-websites-over-betrayal-to-russia/
[8] Arghire, Ionut. “New Chinese cyberespionage group WIP19 targets telecos, IT service providers”, SecurityWeek, 13 October 2022, accessed on 09 November 2022, available from: https://www.securityweek.com/new-chinese-cyberespionage-group-wip19-targets-telcos-it-service-providers
[9] “Turkey’s parliament adopts media law jailing those spreading ‘disinformation’”, Reuters, 14 October 2022, accessed on 08 November 2022, available from: https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/law-that-would-jail-those-spreading-disinformation-progresses-turkey-2022-10-13/
[10] Bozkurt, Abdullah. “Turkey helped Pakistan set up a secret cyber army for influence operation against US, India”, Nordic Monitor, 24 October 2022, accessed on 31 October 2022, available from: https://nordicmonitor.com/2022/10/turkey-helped-pakistan-set-up-a-secret-cyber-army-for-influence-operation-against-us-india/
[11] “Japan, Australia upgrade security pact against China threat”, CNBC, 23 October 2022, accessed on 16 November 2022, available from: https://www.cnbc.com/2022/10/23/japan-australia-upgrade-security-pact-against-china-threat.html

VIF Cyber Review: June 2022

“Cyber secure India is integral to national security and development”: Union Minister of Home Affairs

Addressing a national conference on cyber security and national security on 20 June 2022, the Union Minister of Home Affairs (MHA)— Amit Shah, emphasised the need for public awareness about cyber security being an integral part of national security and the government of India led by Prime Minister Modi is committed to making it robust.

“With the initiatives of PM Modi, India is going forward in all areas, and the usage of technology has been taken to all levels; but if cyber security is not ensured, this strength can become a huge challenge for us. It is important that every Indian understands the challenges of cyberspace so that a secure cyber-India can be created,” said the Minister of Home Affairs. The Government of India is already preparing a National Cyber Security Strategy, which focuses on the need for a legislative framework to address the emerging challenges in the technology space.[1]

Cabinet approved the auction of the IMT/5G spectrum

On 15 June 2022, the Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Modi, approved a proposal of the Department of Telecommunications to conduct a spectrum auction for providing 5G services to the public and enterprises. Digital connectivity is integral togovernment initiatives through Digital India, Start-up India, and Make in India. Through these flagship programmes, the government has promoted access to innovative banking/mobile banking, online education, telemedicine, and e-Ration, to “Antyoday” families.

India’s 4G ecosystem is now paving the way for 5G indigenous development. Establishing a 5G test bed in eight of India’s top technology institutes is accelerating the launch of domestic 5G technology in India. The Production-Linked Incentives (PLI) schemes for mobile handsets and telecom equipment, as well as the launch of the India Semiconductor Mission, are expected to help build a robust ecosystem for the launch of 5G services in India. The day is not far off when India will emerge as a leader in the field of 5G technology and the upcoming 6G technology.[2]

“India’s ICT strategy centres on inclusive growth for all sections of society”: Minister of State for Communications

On 01 June 2022, the Minister of State for Communications, Devusinh Chauhan, addressed a session organised by the World Summit of Information Society (WSIS) 2022 and said that ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is having a growing impact on our daily lives, as a powerful tool for more inclusive, resilient, and prosperous societies. For the development of reliable ICT infrastructure, around 600,000 villages in India are connected through optical fibre cable, whereas small and remote islands and other inaccessible areas are connected through satellite communication services and submarine cable networks.

During the high-level dialogue on Artificial Intelligence (AI), the minister apprised the audience of the Government of India’s policy initiatives to mobilise AI’s emerging sector. India’s National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence (AI) has formulated the way forward to harness the power of AI in various fields, especially in healthcare, agriculture, education, smart cities and infrastructure, and smart mobility and transportation. Emphasising the India-Japan collaborations in the telecom sector, the minister urged the Japanese companies to be part of India’s initiatives in telecom sectors. He also points out that India-Japan collaboration in the area of Open RAN, Massive MIMO, Quantum Communications, Connected Cars, 5G uses cases, and 6G innovation will bring forth the strengths of two ecosystems allowing the creation of leading global solutions.[3]

CERT-In issued an advisory on multiple vulnerabilities in Microsoft Product

On 16 June 2022, the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) issued an advisory— CIAD-2022-0017, regarding multiple vulnerabilities that have been discovered in various Microsoft products which an attacker could exploit to access confidential information, bypass security restrictions, perform a Denial of Service (DoS) attack, escalating privileges, and perform spoofing attacks or executing arbitrary codes on the targeted system.[4]

Cabinet approved MoA by India to set up BIMSTEC Technology Transfer Centre in Sri Lanka

On 14 June 2022, the Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi approved a Memorandum of Association (MoA) by India for establishing the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) Technology Transfer Facility (TFF), which was signed by the BIMSTEC member countries at the 5th BIMSTEC Summit held at Colombo, Sri Lanka on 30 March 2022. As the primary objective, the BIMSTEC TFF are to coordinate, facilitate, and strengthen cooperation in technology transfer among BIMSTEC member nations by promoting the transfer of technologies, sharing of experiences and capacity building. The TFF shall have the Governing Board, and overall control of activities of the TFF shall be vested in the Governing Board[5].

Public Consultation on Draft National Data Governance Framework Policy held in Delhi

A Public Consultation/stakeholder interaction on Draft National Data Governance Framework Policy was organised on 14 June 2022 in New Delhi, India. Over 250 stakeholders from industry, start-ups, academics, think-tanks, international alliances and government officials from various ministries attended the event. Minister of State of Electronics & Information Technology and Skill Development & Entrepreneurship— Rajeev Chandrasekhar highlighted the rapid digitisation of the government and Nagriks within India, and the subsequent rise in data volumes necessitates a framework for harnessing the potential of this data. “PM Narendra Modi encourages public consultations as the most effective way to develop policies with wide inputs from a broad universe of stakeholders.

The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) follows Public Consultation to ensure international standard laws for India’s globally competitive digital economy and startups,” said Minister Chandrasekhar. The draft policy and its solid foundation will focus on improving the institutional framework for government data sharing, promoting privacy and security by design principles, encouraging the use of anonymisation tools, and ensuring equitable access to non-personal data for both the public and private sectors.[6]

G7 agreed to counter cyber threats and disinformation from Russia

On 28 June 2022, the G7 leaders agreed to strengthen their respective countries’ cyber defences against foreign cyber-attacks and disinformation, including threats from Russia. “We commit to strengthen our internal security amidst transnational threats including those posed by Russia and other authoritarian regimes,” read the G7 communique at the end of the Summit held in Germany.[7]

Canadian national police force admitted the use of spyware to hack phones

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) disclosed the information on the usage of spyware to hack mobile devices and gather data, including by remotely turning on the camera and microphone of the suspect’s phone and laptop. However, the RCMP said it only uses such tools in the most serious cases, where less invasive techniques are unsuccessful. Between 2018 and 2020, the RCMP deployed this technique in 10 investigations.

According to the document introduced in the House of Commons (Canada), “the RCMP can use spyware programmes to collect a broad range of data, including text messages, e-mail, photos, videos, audio files, calendar entries, and financial records. The police can also collect “audio recordings of private communications and other sounds within the range of the targeted device, and photographic images of persons, places, and activities viewable by the camera(s) built into the targeted device.”[8]

NATO building cyber response force amid emerging Russian and Chinese threats

On 29 June 2022, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) heads of State and other governments participating in a high-level Summit in Madrid, Spain, announced the creation of the “virtual rapid response cyber capability” to quickly respond to cyber-attacks and other malign activity in cyberspace. According to the Madrid Summit Declaration, NATO plans to bolster its cyber defences through increased civil-military cooperation and expanded partnerships with industry.

“We [NATO] are confronted by cyber, space, hybrid, and other asymmetric threats, and by malicious use of emerging and disruptive technologies. We face systemic competition from those, including China, who challenge our interests, security, and values, and seek to undermine the rules-based international order,” read the document.[9]

Russian hacker group targeted Norway’s public service websites

On 29 June 2022, Norway’s National Security Authority (NSA)’s Director-General Sofie Nystrom informed reporters that the Russian hacker group— Killnet targeted a string of Norwegian public service websites in the latest cyber-attacks. Some websites experienced instability or disruption, but there are no indications that any sensitive or personal information has been compromised. In the Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, the Public Administration Portal, the corporate page of an online banking identification service, and the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority (NLIA) were affected. The website of Norway’s largest newspaper was also down for 25 minutes.[10]

China lured jobseekers into cyber-espionage

At a mysterious tech firm, the graduates of Chinese universities have been bagged to pursue a job. It was discovered that the mysterious firm concealed the actual work, which aimed at analysing western objectives for snooping and interpreting hacked data concerning China’s commercial-scale findings system. The recruitment procedure comprised interpretation assessments on confidential papers accessed from the United States government offices and directions to examine people at Johns Hopkins University as a significant intelligence target. In 2021, a United States court accused the company of espionage for the APT40 hacking association of China.

Western intelligence agencies have made allegations against the Chinese association for invading ministry offices, firms, and universities across the United States, Canada, Europe, and the Middle East, following China’s Ministry of State Security (MSS)’s commands. The firm’s selection of recently graduated Chinese University students seems to have unknowingly drawn them into the world of spying. When posting job openings on the universities’ websites, the tech company only mentioned the position as a translator and withheld all other employment-related details.[11]

Endnotes :

[1]HT Correspondent. “Cyber-secure India Key for development: Amit Shah”, Hindustan Times, 21 June 2022, Available from: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/amit-shah-calls-for-making-india-cyber-secure-nation-101655711986417.html
[2]Government of India. “Cabinet approves Auction of IMT/5G Spectrum”, Press Information Bureau-Cabinet, 15 June 2022, Available from: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1834126
[3]Government of India. “India’s ICT strategy hinges on inclusive growth for all sections of the society: Shri Devusinh Chauhan at WSIS 2022”, Press Information Bureau-Ministry of Communications, 02 June 2022, Available from: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1830362
[4]Government of India. “CIAD-2022-0017”, Indian Computer Emergency Response Team, 16 June 2022, Available from: https://www.cert-in.org.in/
[5] Government of India. “Cabinet approves MoA by India for establishment of BIMSTEC Technology Transfer Centre at Colombo, Sri Lanka”, Press Information Bureau-Cabinet, 15 June 2022, Available from: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1834126
[6]Government of India. “Public Consultation on Draft National Data Governance Framework Policy”, Press Information Bureau-Ministry of Electronics and IT, 16 June 2022, Available from: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1834520
[7] “G7 to tackle cyber threats and disinformation from Russia: communique”, Reuters, 28 June 2022, Available from: https://www.reuters.com/world/g7-tackle-cyber-threats-disinformation-russia-communique-2022-06-28/
[8]Forrest, Maura. “Canada’s national police force admits use of spyware to hack phones”, Politico, 29 June 2022, Available from: https://www.politico.com/news/2022/06/29/canada-national-police-spyware-phones-00043092
[9]Demarest, Colin. “NATO forging cyber response force amid growing Russian, Chinese threats”, 30 June 2022, Available from: https://www.c4isrnet.com/cyber/2022/06/30/nato-forging-cyber-response-force-amid-growing-russian-chinese-threats/
[10]Treloar, Stephen. “Russian hackers target Norway in latest volley of cyber attacks”, Bloomberg, 30 June 2022, Available from: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-06-30/russian-hackers-target-norway-in-latest-volley-of-cyber-attacks#xj4y7vzkg
[11]Ghosh, Riya. “China lured graduate jobseekers into digital espionage”, Tech Story, 02 July 2022, Available from: https://techstory.in/china-lured-graduate-jobseekers-into-digital-espionage/